Glossary A – F

A - F | G - K | L - R | S - Z
A-RUN STEELHEADSummer steelhead crossing Bonneville Dam on or before August 25.
ABIOTIC The absence of living organisms.
ACCLIMATE The adaptation of an organism to environmental changes.
ACCLIMATION POND Concrete or earthen pond or a temporary structure used for rearing and imprinting juvenile fish in the water of a particular stream before their release into that stream.
ACID RAIN Rainfall with a pH of less than 7.0. Long-term deposition of these acids is linked to adverse effects on aquatic organisms and plant life in areas with poor neutralizing (buffering) capacity.
ACREA measure of area equal to 43,560 square feet (4,046.87 square meters). One square mile equals 640 acres.
ACRE-FOOTVolume covering one acre to a depth of one foot. This volume measurement is used to describe a quantity of storage in a reservoir.
ADAPTATION Adjustment to environmental conditions
ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT A scientific policy that seeks to improve management of biological resources, particularly in areas of scientific uncertainty, by viewing program actions as vehicles for learning. Projects are designed and implemented as experiments so that even if they fail, they provide useful information for future actions. Monitoring and evaluation are emphasized so that the interaction of different elements of the system are better understood.
ADAPTIVE MANAGEMENT AREAS Landscape units designated for development and testing of technical and social approaches to achieving desired ecological, economic, and other social objectives.
ADFLUVIAL Possessing a life history trait of migrating between lakes or rivers and streams.
ADULT FISH COUNTS A fish-viewing window is at the upstream end of most fish ladders. Observers count the number of fish, by species and size, passing the window for 50 minutes of every hour for 16 hours per day. Extrapolations are made for the hours and minutes not counted to provide an estimate of daily adult fish passage for each dam. In general, separate counts are made for adults and jacks (precocious males that can be identified by their smaller size).
ADULT FISH LADDERS The main-stem hydroelectric dams on the Columbia and lower Snake Rivers have fish ladders that allow adults to pass the dams on their upstream spawning migration.
AERATION Any active or passive process by which intimate contact between air and liquid is assured, generally by spraying liquid in the air, bubbling air through water, or mechanical agitation of the liquid to promote surface absorption of air.
AEROBIC Characterizing organisms able to live only in the presence of air or free oxygen, and conditions that exist only in the presence of air or free oxygen. Contrast with Anaerobic.
AFFECTED ENVIRONMENT Existing biological, physical, social, and economic conditions of an area subject to change, both directly and indirectly, as the result of a proposed human action. Also, the chapter in an environmental impact statement describing current environmental conditions.
AFFLUENT (STREAM) A stream or river that flows into a larger one; a Tributary.
ALEVIN The developmental life stage of young salmonids and trout that are between the egg and fry stage. The alevin has not absorbed its yolk sac and has not emerged from the spawning gravels.
ALLUVIAL Deposited by running water.
ALLUVIUM Sediment or loose material such as clay, silt, sand, gravel, and larger rocks deposited by moving water.
ALTERNATIVE One of several policies, plans, or projects proposed for making decisions.
ALTERNATING CURRENT (AC)An electric current in which the electrons flow in alternate directions. In North American electrical grids, this reversal of flow is governed at 60 cycles per second (Hertz).
ANEROBIC Characterizing organisms able to live and grow only where there is no air or free oxygen, and conditions that exist only in the absence of air or free oxygen.
AMERICAN PUBLIC POWER ASSOCIATION (APPA)An organization that represents the interests of publicly owned utilities throughout the United States.
ANADROMOUS FISHFish that hatch in fresh water, migrate to the ocean, mature there and return to freshwater to spawn. Salmon and steelhead, for example.
ANNUAL OPERATING PLANA yearly plan for operating reservoirs on the Columbia River. Such a plan is specifically required by the Columbia River Treaty and by the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement.
APPROACH VELOCITIES Water velocities at or near the face of a fish screen.
AQUATIC ECOSYSTEM Any body of water, such as a stream, lake or estuary, and all organisms and nonliving components within it, functioning as a natural system.
AQUATIC HABITAT Habitat that occurs in free water.
AQUIFER An underground layer of rock or soil containing ground water.
ARCH DAM Curved masonry or concrete dam, convex in shape upstream, that depends on arch action for its stability; the load or water pressure is transferred by the arch to the Abutments.
ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CORPS) An agency with the responsibility for design, construction and operation of civil works, including multipurpose dams and navigation projects.
ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION (or Artificial propagation) Spawning, incubating, hatching or rearing fish in a hatchery or other facility constructed for fish production.
ARTIFICIAL PROPOGATION Any assistance provided by man in the reproduction of Pacific salmon. This assistance includes, but is not limited to, spawning and rearing in hatcheries, stock transfers, creation of spawning habitat, egg bank programs, captive broodstock programs, and cryopreservation of gametes.
ASSESSMENT LEVEL Categories of the level of complexity of and data available for each assessment included in this document; index of abundance (INDEX), yield-per-recruit analysis (YIELD), analysis of the age structure of the catch (AGE STRUCTURE), analysis including the relationship between recruitment and spawning stock size (SPAWNING STOCK) and assessment that allows prediction of future (one or two years ahead) stock sizes and catches (predictive). These levels are detailed in the subsection titled Kinds of Assessments.
ASSURED REFILL CURVEA curve showing minimum elevations that must be maintained at each project to ensure refill even if the third lowest historical water year occurred; it sets limits on the production of energy.
AT-RISK FISH STOCKS Stocks of anadromous salmon and trout that have been identified by professional societies, fish management agencies, and in the scientific literature as being in need of special management consideration because of low or declining populations.
ATTRACTION Drawing fish to dam fishways or spillways through the use of water flows.
AUGMENTATION (OF STREAM FLOW) Increasing steam flow under normal conditions, by releasing storage water from reservoirs.
AVERAGE MEGAWATTS (aMW)The energy produced by the continuous operation of one megawatt of capacity over a period of one year. (One average megawatt is equivalent to 8.76 million kilowatt-hours)
AVOIDED COSTA guideline for comparing the value of conservation and renewable resources with other resources. Literally, the cost a utility avoids by purchasing a conservation or renewable resource versus acquiring energy elsewhere.
B-RUN STEELHEADSummer steelhead crossing Bonneville Dam after August 25.
BASELOAD In a demand sense, a load that varies only slightly in level over a specified time period. In a supply sense, a plant that operates most efficiently at a relatively constant level of generation.
BEDROCK The solid rock at the surface or underlying other surface materials. Rock of relatively great thickness and extent in its native location.
BENEFICIAL USE Water loss through use for the betterment of society, e.g. irrigation or municipal use.
BIOLOGICAL OPINION Document stating the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Marine Fisheries Service opinion as to whether a Federal action is likely to jeopardize the continued existence of a threatened or endangered species, or result in the destruction or adverse modification of critical habitat.
BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY The variety of, and variability among, living organisms and the ecological complexes in which they occur. Biological diversity at its most basic level is the genetic diversity (genetic variation found within each species), phenotypic and morphological diversity (physical, life history and behavioral variation found within each species), species diversity (number of species in a given ecosystem), and community/ecosystem diversity (variety of habitat types and ecosystem processes extending over a region).
BIOLOGICAL PERFORMANCE The responses of populations to habitat conditions, described in terms of capacity, abundance, productivity, and life history diversity.
BIOLOGICAL POTENTIAL The biological potential of a species means the potential capacity, productivity and life history diversity of a population in its habitat at each life stage.
BIOMASS The total quantity (at any given time) of living organisms of one or more species per unit of space (species biomass), or of all the species in a biotic community (community biomass).
BIOMASS CONVERSION The process by which organic materials, such as wood waste or garbage, are burned for direct energy or electrical generation, or by which these materials are converted to synthetic natural gas.
BLACKOUTAn emergency forced outage or other fault in the generation, transmission or distribution system that causes the disconnection of the source of electricity from all the electrical loads in a certain geographical area.
BLOCKED AREAS Areas in the Columbia River Basin where hydroelectric projects have created permanent barriers to anadromous fish runs. These include the areas above Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams, the Hells Canyon Complex and other smaller locations.
BONNEVILLE POWER ADMINISTRATION BPA is the sole federal power marketing agency in the Northwest and the region's major wholesaler of electricity. Created by Congress in 1937, BPA serves the states of Washington, Oregon, Idaho, Montana west of the continental divide, and small adjacent portions of California, Montana, Nevada, Utah and Wyoming. BPA markets and transmits power, coordinates operations of the Federal Columbia River Power System, and manages a large portion of the Pacific Northwest-Pacific Southwest Intertie. Although it lacks authority to build or own dams or power plants, BPA does own and operate, within its service area, the nation's largest network of long distance transmission lines. Though part of the Department of Energy, BPA is not funded by tax revenues; the agency recovers the cost of operations and maintenance mainly through its electrcity rates.
BOREAL FOREST A northern forest, as in the boreal forest Biome, characterized by evergreen conifers and long winters. The boreal forest, also referred to as a Taiga, is found in the northern parts of North America, Europe, and Asia.
BRACKISH WATER Generally, water containing dissolved minerals in amounts that exceed normally acceptable standards for municipal, domestic, and irrigation uses. Considerably less saline than sea water. Also, Marine and Estuarine waters with Mixohaline salinity (0.5 to 30 due to ocean salts). Water containing between 1,000-4,000 parts per million (PPM) Total Dissolved Solids TDS). The term brackish water is frequently interchangeable with Saline Water. The term should not be applied to inland waters.
BROOD STOCK Adult fish used to propagate the subsequent generation of hatchery fish.
BROOD YEAR The year in which the eggs were spawned
BROODLINE The generation of pink salmon that reproduces every other year. Because of the lack of variable age structure in this species, even-year pink salmon are reproductively isolated from odd-year pink salmon.
BROOK A natural stream of water, smaller than a river or creek; especially a small stream or rivulet which breaks directly out of the ground, as from a spring or seep; also, a stream or torrent of similar size, produced by copious rainfall, melting snow and ice, etc.; a primary stream not formed by tributaries, though often fed below its source, as by rills or runlets; one of the smallest branches or ultimate ramifications of a drainage system.
BROWNOUTAn intentional voltage reduction used to reduce energy loads in an area. A brownout causes lights to dim and motors to run more slowly.
BTU (BRITISH THERMAL UNIT) The amount of heat energy necessary to raise the temperature of one pound of water one degree Fahrenheit. (One kilowatt-hour is equal to 3,413 BTUs.)
BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS (BIA) The Bureau of Indian Affairs mission is to enhance the quality of life, to promote economic opportunity, and to carry out the responsibility to protect and improve the trust assets of American Indians, Indian tribes, and Alaska Natives.
BUREAU OF RECLAMATION, U.S. DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR An agency that administers some parts of the federal program for water resource development and use in western states. The Bureau of Reclamation owns and operates a number of dams in the Columbia River Basin, including Grand Coulee and several projects on the Yakima River.
BUTTRESS DAMA dam consisting of a watertight upstream face supported at intervals on the downstream side by a series of buttresses.
BYPASS SYSTEMStructure in a dam that provides a route for fish to move through or around the dam without going through the turbines.
CANAL A constructed open channel for transporting water.
CANOPY A layer of foliage in a forest stand. This most often refers to the uppermost layer of foliage, but it can be used to describe lower layers in a multistoried stand. Leavs, branches and vegetation that are above ground and/or water that provide shade and cover for fish and wildlife.
CAPTIVE BROODSTOCK Fish raised and spawned in captivity.
CAPACITYThe maximum sustainable amount of power that can be produced by a generator or carried by a transmission facility at any instant.
CATCHMENT BASIN Unit watershed; an area from which all the drainage water passes into one stream or other body of water.
CARRYING CAPACITY (SPECIES) The number of individuals of one species that the resources of a habitat can support.
CASCADE A short, steep drop in stream bed elevation often marked by boulders and agitated white water.
CATADROMOUS Refers to fishes that migrate from fresh water to salt water to spawn or reproduce such as the American eel.
CATCHMENT (1) The catching or collecting of water, especially rainfall. (2) A reservoir or other basin for catching water. (3) The water thus caught.
CHANNEL Natural or artificial watercourse of perceptible extent, with a definite bed and banks to confine and conduct continuously or periodically flowing water. Rivers and streams. A general term for any natural or artificial facility for conveying water.
CEREMONIAL OR SUBSISTENCE HARVEST Harvests of fish by Native Americans for ceremonies and to support traditional lifestyles.
CHANNEL An area that contains continuously or periodically flowing water that is confined by banks and a stream bed.
CHECK DAM A small dam constructed in a gully or other small water course to decrease the streamflow velocity, minimize channel erosion, promote deposition of sediment and to divert water from a channel.
COFFERDAM.A temporary structure enclosing all or part of the construction area so that construction can proceed in the dry.
CLEAN WATER ACTThe act establishes a complete regulatory system for navigable waters in the United States, whether on public or private land. It sets national policies to eliminate discharge of water pollutants from point sources without permits. It authorizes EPA to set water quality criteria for states to use to establish water quality standards.
COGENERATIONThe simultaneous production of electricity and useful thermal energy. This is frequently accomplished by using steam to both generate power and to provide space or water heating for industrial processes.
COLLECTION AND BYPASS SYSTEM A system at a dam that collects and holds the fish approaching the dam for later transportation or moves them through or around the dam without going through the turbine units.
COLONIZATION The establishment of a species in an area not currently occupied by that species. Colonization often involves dispersal across an area of unsuitable habitat.
COLUMBIA BASIN FISH AND WILDLIFE AUTHORITY (CBFWA) Represents regional state and federal fish agencies and the Columbia Basin Indian Tribes.
COLUMBIA RIVER ALLIANCEFormed in 1990, the CRA represents a diverse spectrum of interests supporting a balanced, multi-use river system in the Columbia Basin. The alliance -- with members throughout Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana -- represents communities, agricultural associations, timber interests, irrigators, ports, electric utilities and manufacturing industries. It's offices are in Portland.
COLUMBIA RIVER COMPACT An interstate compact between the states of Oregon and Washington by which the states jointly regulate fish in the Columbia River.
COLUMBIA RIVER SYSTEM The Columbia River and its tributaries.
COLUMBIA RIVER TREATY The treaty between the United States and Canada for the joint development of the Columbia River. It became effective on September 16, 1964.
COLUMBIA STORAGE POWER EXCHANGE (CSPE)The CSPE is a nonprofit corporation formed by eight public and three private utilities in 1964 to implement portions of the Columbia River Treaty with Canada. Under the treaty, Canada agreed to build two storage dams and one dam for generation on the upper Columbia, resulting in greater power and flood control benefits at U.S. facilities downstream. Canada receives half of the increased output at U.S. dams -- a share referred to as the Canadian Entitlement. Not needing the additonal power, Canada sought to sell its entitlement under 30-year contracts to the United States.
COMBINED CYCLE The combination of a gas turbine and steam turbine in an electric generating plant. The waste heat from the first turbine cycle provides the heat energy for the second turbine cycle.
COMBUSTION TURBINE A turbine engine generator often fired by natural gas. The turbine generator is turned by combustion gases rather than by steam.
COMMERCIAL FISHERY (OR HARVEST) A fishery, using various types of fishing gear, that is intended to harvest one or more species of fish for the purpose of selling them to fish buyers or directly to the public.
CONDUCTORAny material that will carry the flow of electricity. In utilities, usually refers to the wire or cable that constitute power lines.
CONFLUENCE (1) The act of flowing together; the meeting or junction of two or more streams; also, the place where these streams meet. (2) The stream or body of water formed by the junction of two or more streams; a combined flood.
CONSERVATIONA resource produced by increasing the efficiency of energy use, production or distribution.
CONSUMPTIVE USE A use which lessens the amount of water available for another use. Water uses normally associated with man's activities, primarily municipal, industrial, and irrigation uses that deplete water supplies.
COOPERATIVE (CO-OP)A private non-profit utility owned by its members and essentially self-regulated by an elected board of directors.
COORDINATED OPERATIONThe operation of two or more interconnected electrical systems or a group of hydro plants to achieve greater reliability and economy.
COST-EFFECTIVE Where equally effective alternative means of achieving the same sound biological objective exist, the alternative with the minimum economic cost is considered the most cost-effective measure.
CORRIDOR A defined tract of land, usually linear, through which a species must travel to reach habitat suitable for reproduction and other life-sustaining needs.
COVER Vegetation used by wildlife for protection from predators, or to mitigate weather conditions, or to reproduce. May also refer to the protection of the soil and the shading provided to herbs and forbs by vegetation.
CRITICAL HABITAT Under the Endangered Species Act, critical habitat is defined as (1) the specific areas within the geographic area occupied by a federally listed species on which are found physical and biological features essential to the conservation of the species, and that may require special management considerations or protections; and (2) specific areas outside the geographic area occupied by a listed species, when it is determined that such areas are essential for the conservation of the species.
CRITICAL RULE CURVES A set of curves that define reservoir elevations that must be maintained to ensure that firm energy requirements can be met under the most adverse historical streamflow conditions. Critical rule curves are derived for all four years in the critical period. They are used to guide reservoir operation for power.
CRITICAL WATER PERIODThe "Worst Case" water condition under which the region's hydropower resource would generate the least amount of energy (about 12,500 aMW, as compared to 16,600 aMW in an average year). The definition of critical water is based on the lowest water condition on record (August 1928 to February 1932) measured at The Dalles Dam.
CRUCIAL HABITAT Habitat that is basic to maintaining viable populations of fish and wildlife during certain seasons of the year or specific reproduction periods.
CUBIC FEET PER SECOND (CFS)A measurement of water flow representing one cubic foot of water moving past a given point in one second.
CURTAILMENTA temporary, mandatory load reduction under emergency conditions taken after all possible conservation and load management measures, and prompted by problems of meeting baseload rather than an upswing or peak.
DAM A concrete or earthen barrier constructed across a river and designed to control water flow or create a reservoir.
DEFLECTOR SCREENS/DIVERSION SCREENS Wire mesh screens placed at the point where water is diverted from a stream or river. The screens keep fish from entering the diversion channel or pipe.
DEMANDThe rate at which electric energy is used, whether at a given instant, or averaged over any designated period of time
DEMAND-SIDE When looking at the entire electric system as a whole, the portion that determines the amount of demand (furnaces, motors, lights, etc.).
DEMAND-SIDE MANAGEMENT (DSM)Strategies for reducing consumption by influencing when and how customers use electricity. Demand-side management includes such things as conservation programs and incentives for switching electricity use from mid-day to evening.
DEMOGRAPHICS Characteristics of human populations, especially size, density, growth, distribution, migration and vital statistics and the effect of these on social and economic conditions.
DENSITY (BIOLOGICAL POPULATION) The number or size of a population in relation to some unit of space.
DEREGULATION The loosening of federal and state laws and regulations that govern the generation, transmission and distribution of electricity.
DEWATERING Elimination of water from a lake, river, stream, reservoir, or containment.
DIKE (1) (Engineering) An embankment to confine or control water, especially one built along the banks of a river to prevent overflow of lowlands; a levee. (2) A low wall that can act as a barrier to prevent a spill from spreading. (3) (Geology) A tabular body of igneous (formed by volcanic action) rock that cuts across the structure of adjacent rocks or cuts massive rocks.
DIRECT CURRENT (DC) An electrical current in which the electrons flow continuously in one direction. Direct Current is used in specialized applications in commercial electric generation, transmission and distribution systems.
DIRECT SERVICE INDUSTRY (DSI)An industrial customer that buys power directly from BPA. Most Direct Service Industries are aluminum factories.
DISCHARGE Volume of water flowing at a given time, usually expressed in cubic feet per second.
DISSOLVED GAS The amount of chemicals normally occurring as gases, such as nitrogen and oxygen, that are held in solution in water, expressed in units such as milligrams of the gas per liter of liquid. Supersaturation occurs when these solutions exceed the saturation level of the water (beyond 100 percent).
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM The system that transports electricity from the substation to customers. At Snohomish County PUD, the distribution system carries power at 12,500 volts.
DIVERSION DAM A barrier built to divert part or all of the water from a stream into a different course.
DRAFTRelease of water from a reservoir storage, usually measured in feet of reservoir elevation.
DRAINAGE An area (basin) mostly bounded by ridges or other similar topographic features, encompassing part, most, or all of a watershed and enclosing some 5,000 acres.
DRAWDOWNThe distance that the water surface of a reservoir is lowered from a given elevation as water is released from the reservoir. Also refers to the act of lowering reservoir levels.
DREDGING Digging up and removing material from wetlands or waterways, usually to make them deeper or wider.
DROUGHT Generally, the term is applied to periods of less than average or normal precipitation over a certain period of time sufficiently prolonged to cause a serious hydrological imbalance resulting in biological losses (impact flora and fauna ecosystems) and/or economic losses (affecting man). In a less precise sense, it can also signify nature's failure to fulfill the water wants and needs of man.
EARTHFILL OR EARTH DAM An embankment dam in which more than 50 percent of the total volume is formed of compacted fine-grained material obtained from a borrow area (i.e., excavation pit).
EAST-SIDE FOREST The 12 National Forests in Washington, Oregon, and California that lie partly or wholly east of the Cascade Mountain Range crest: Colville, Deschutes, Fremont, Klamath, Malheur, Ochoco, Okanogan, Shasta-Trinity, Umatilla, Wallowa-Whitman, Wenatchee, and Winema National Forest.
ECOLOGICAL HEALTH The state of an ecosystem in which processes and functions are adequate to maintain diversity of biotic communities commensurate with those initially found there.
ECOLOGY Branch of biological science which deals with relationships between living organisms and their environments.
ECOSYSTEM The biological community considered together with the land and water that make up its environment.
ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY The variety of species and ecological processes that occur in different physical settings.
ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENTA strategy or plan to manage ecosystems to provide for all associated organisms, as opposed to a strategy or plan for managing individual species.
EDDY A circular current of water, usually resulting from an obstruction.
EDGE Where plant communities meet or where successional stages or vegetative conditions with plant communities come together.
EDISON ELECTRIC INSTITUTE (EEI)An organization that represents the interests of investor-owned utilities in the United States.
EFFLUENT (1) Something that flows out or forth, especially a stream flowing out of a body of water. (2) (Water Quality) Discharged wastewater such as the treated wastes from municipal sewage plants, brine wastewater from desalting operations, and coolant waters from a nuclear power plant.
EIS Environmental Impact Statement.
EL NINO CURRENTAn intermittent warm water current that originates from the tropics and overrides the normal cold water currents that persist along the Pacific coast, resulting in warmer than normal ocean conditions.
END USEA term referring to the final use of energy. In the aggregate, it is used the same as demand. In more detailed use, it often refers to specific energy services, such as space heating.
ELECTRIC CONSUMERS PROTECTION ACT OF 1986declared that municipal preferences would not apply in FERC relicensing decisions. It also required FERC to give equal consideration to environmental concerns, such as protecting fish and wildlife and enhancing recreation and conservation, as well as energy concerns, in making licensing and relicensing decisions.
ELECTRIC AND MAGNETIC FIELDS (EMF)Invisible force fields that surround the movement of electricity. Everything electrical produces EMF.
ELECTRIC POWER RESEARCH INSTITUTE (EPRI)An organization based in Palo Alto, Calif. that uses money from member utilities to fund the research and development of technologies related to the generation, delivery and use of electricity.
EMBANKMENT An artificial deposit of material that is raised above the natural surface of the land and used to contain, divert, or store water, support roads or railways, or for other similar purposes.
EMBANKMENT DAM A dam structure constructed of fill material, usually earth or rock, placed with sloping sides and usually with a length greater than its height.
EMBEDDED COST The fixed cost of all facilities in the power supply system, including generating plants, substations and distribution lines.
ENDANGERED SPECIES ACT OF 1973Most recently amended in 1988, establishes a national program for the conservation of threatened and endangered species of fish, wildlife and plants and the preservation of the ecosystems on which they depend. Section 7(a) of the ESA requires federal agencies to consult with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and NMFS to ensure that actions they take are not likely to jeopardize the continued existence of endangered or threatened species or damage their habitat. Section 7(c) of the ESA requires that federal agencies prepare biological assessments of the potential effects of major construction actions on listed or proposed endangered species and critical habitat.
ENERGY The ability to work (i.e., exert a force over distance). Energy is measured in calories, joules, KWH, BTUs, MW-hours, and average MWs.
ENERGY POLICY ACT (EPACT) Comprehensive federal legislation enacted in 1992 that is resulting in fundamental changes in the electric utility industry by promoting competion in wholesale electricity markets. Title VII, the electricity title of the Act, made it easier for non-utility producers to participate in the electric generation market by exempting them from regulatory restrictions imposed by the Public Utility Holding Act.
ENHANCEMENT Emphasis on improving the value of particular aspects of water and related land resources.
ENTRAINMENT (Streams) The incidental trapping of fish and other aquatic organisms in the water, for example, used for cooling electrical power plants or in waters being diverted for irrigation or similar purposes.
ENVIRONMENT All biological, chemical, social, and physical factors to which organisms are exposed. The surroundings that affect the growth and development of an organism.
ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT (EA) A systematic analysis of site-specific activities used to determine whether such activities have a significant effect on the quality of the human environment and whether a formal environmental impact statement is required; and to aid an agency's compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act when no environmental impact statement is necessary.
ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS The environmental conditions or changes sought to achieve the desired changes in population characteristics.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT The positive or negative effect of any action upon a give area or resource.
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT A formal document to be filed with the Environmental Protection Agency that considers significant environmental impacts expected from implementation of a major federal action.
ENVIRONMENTAL CHARACTERISTICS The environmental conditions or changes sought to achieve the desired changes in population characteristics.
EROSION Wearing away of rock or soil by the gradual detachment of soil or rock fragments by water, wind, ice, and other mechanical, chemical, or biological forces.
ESA The U.S. Endangered Species Act.
ESCAPEMENT The number of salmon and steelhead that return to a specified point of measurement after all natural mortality and harvest have occurred. Spawning escapement consists of those fish that survive to spawn.
ESTUARY The part of the wide lower course of a river where its current is met and influenced by the tides.
ESU Evolutionarily Significant Unit
EUTROPHIC Usually refers to a nutrient-enriched, highly productive body of water.
EUTROPHICATION The process of enrichment of water bodies by nutrients.
EVAPORATION The physical process by which a liquid (or a solid) is transformed to the gaseous state. In Hydrology, evaporation is vaporization that takes place at a temperature below the boiling point.
EVOLUTIONARILY SIGNIFICANT UNIT (ESU) "A definition of ""species"" used by NMFS in administering the Endangered Species Act. An ESU is a population (or groups of populations) that (1) is reproductively isolated from other conspecific population units, and (2) represents an important component in the evolutionary legacy of the species."
EXOTIC SPECIES Introduced species not native to the place where they are found (e.g., Atlantic salmon to Oregon or Washington).
EXTINCTION The natural or human-induced process by which a species, subspecies or population ceases to exist.
FAUNA (1) A term used to describe the animal species of a specific region or time. (2) All animal life associated with a given habitat, country, area, or period.
FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION (FERC)An independent regulatory agency within the U.S. Department of Energy. Regulates power projects on navigable waters and the transmission and sale of electricity in interstate commerce.
FEDERAL LAND MANAGERS This category includes the Bureau of Indian Affairs; the Bureau of Land Management; the National Park Service, all part of the U.S. Department of the Interior; and the Forest Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture.
FEDERAL PROJECT OPERATORS AND REGULATORS Federal agencies that operate or regulate hydroelectric projects in the Columbia River Basin. They include the Bonneville Power Administration, the Bureau of Indian Affairs, the Bureau of Reclamation, the Corps of Engineers and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.
FILL (Geology) Any sediment deposited by any agent such as water so as to fill or partly fill a channel, valley, sink, or other depression.
FILL DAM Any dam constructed of excavated natural materials or of industrial waste materials.
FINAL ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT (FEIS) The final report of environmental effects of proposed action on an area of land. This is required for major federal actions under Section 102 of the National Environmental Policy Act. It is a revision of the draft environmental impact statement to include public and agency responses to the draft.
FIRM ENERGYThe amount of energy that can be generated given the region's worst historical water conditions. It is energy produced on a guaranteed basis.
FISHERY The aquatic region in which a certain species of fish lives. The act, process, or occupation of attempting to catch fish, which may be retained or released.
FISH AND WILDLIFE AGENCIES This category includes the Fish and Wildlife Service, U.S. Department of the Interior; the Idaho Department of Fish and Game; the Montana Department of Fish, Wildlife and Parks; the National Marine Fisheries Service, U.S. Department of Commerce; the Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife; and the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.
FISH AND WILDLIFE COORDINATION ACT OF 1934Directs that conservation of fish and wildlife resources be given equal consideration with the other aspects of water resources development projects. It requires evaluation of potential damage to fish and wildlife that may result from proposing habitat alteration. Anyone proposing to impound, control or modify any water body must consult with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. That agency prepares a report, which includes comments from state and federal agencies, such as NMFS, that addresses fish and wildlife concerns and recommends mitigation for impacts.
FISH FLOWS "Artificially increased flows in the river system called for in the fish and wildlife program to quickly move the young fish down the river during their spring migration period. (See ""water budget."")"
FISH GUIDANCE EFFICIENCY (FGE) The proportion of juvenile fish passing into the turbine intakes that are diverted away from the turbines and into bypass facilities.
FISH AND WILDLIFE COORDINATION ACT OF 1934Directs that conservation of fish and wildlife resources be given equal consideration with the other aspects of water resources development projects. It requires evaluation of potential damage to fish and wildlife that may result from proposing habitat alteration. Anyone proposing to impound, control or modify any water body must consult with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. That agency prepares a report, which includes comments from state and federal agencies, such as NMFS, that addresses fish and wildlife concerns and recommends mitigation for impacts.
FISH LADDERS A series of ascending pools constructed to enable salmon or other fish to swim upstream around or over a dam.
FISH PASSAGE EFFICIENCY (FPE) The proportion of juvenile fish passing a project through the spillway, sluiceway, or juvenile bypass system, as opposed to passing through the turbines.
FISH SCREEN A screen across the turbine intake of a dam, designed to divert the fish into the bypass system.
FISH PASSAGE FACILITIESFeatures of a dam that enable fish to move around, through, or over without harm. Generally an upstream fish ladder or a downstream bypass system.
FIXED COSTCosts of generation projects incurred regardless of the amount of energy produced. Such costs normally include capital costs, the cost of financing construction (in the form of interest) and insurance.
FLOOD CONTROL RULE CURVEA curve, or family of curves, indicating reservoir drawdown required to control floods. (Also called Mandatory Rule Curve or Upper Rule Curve.)
FLOWThe volume of water passing a given point per unit of time.
FLOW AUGMENTATIONWater from a storage reservoir added to enhance flow, particularly to aid fish migration.
FLUVIAL Migrating between main rivers and tributaries. Of or pertaining to streams or rivers.
FOOD CHAIN Organisms that are interrelated in their feeding habits, each feeding upon organisms that are lower in the chain and in turn being fed on by organisms higher in the chain.
FOREBAY The part of a dam's reservoir that is immediately upstream from the powerhouse.
FOREBAY GUIDANCE NET A large net placed in the forebay of a dam to guide juvenile fish away from the powerhouse.
FORECASTING The process of estimating or calculating electricity load or resource production at some point in the future.
FRESHETA rapid temporary rise in streamflow caused by heavy rains or rapid snowmelt.
FULL POOL The maximum level of a reservoir under its established normal operating range.
1) Snohomish County P.U.D.:
2) The Columbia River System: The Inside Story A 1991 publication from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Bonneville Power Administration
3) Public Power Fundamentals, a 1995 publication from the Public Power Council
4) Northwest Power Planning Council 2001 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Description
5), 2001 Glossary of Terms
6) Bureau of Reclamation, Glossary of Hydropower Terms

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