Glossary S – Z

A - F | G - K | L - R | S - Z
SALMONID A fish of the Salmonidae family, which includes soft-finned fish such as salmon, trout and whitefish.
SEDIMENT The organic material that is transported and deposited by wind and water.
SEDIMENTATION Deposition of sediment.
SHAPING The scheduling and operation of generating resources to meet changing load levels. Load shaping on a hydro system usually involves the adjustment of reservoir releases so that generation and load are continuously in balance.
SILT Substrate particles smaller than sand and larger than clay.
SILTATIONThe deposition or accumulation of fine soil particles.
SLUICEWAY An open channel inside a dam designed to collect and divert ice and trash in the river (e.g., logs) before they get into the turbine units and cause damage. (On several of the Columbia River dams, ice and trash sluiceways are being used as, or converted into, fish bypass systems.)
SMOLTA juvenile salmon or steelhead migrating to the ocean and undergoing physiological changes to adapt its body from a freshwater to a saltwater environment.
SPAWNINGThe releasing and fertilizing of eggs by fish.
SPECIES A group of individuals of common ancestry that closely resemble each other structurally and physiologically and that can interbreed, producing fertile offspring.
SPILLWater passed over a spillway without going through turbines to produce electricity. Spill can be forced, when there is no storage capability and flows exceed turbine capacity, or planned, for example, when water is spilled to enhance juvenile fish passage.
SPILLWAY "The channel or passageway around or over a dam through which excess water is released or ""spilled"" past the dam without going through the turbines. A spillway is a safety valve for a dam and, as such, must be capable of discharging major floods without damaging the dam, while maintaining the reservoir level below some predetermined maximum level."
STATE WATER MANAGEMENT AGENCIES State government agencies that regulate water resources. They include the Idaho Department of Water Resources; the Montana Department of Natural Resources and Conservation; the Oregon Water Resources Department; and the Washington Department of Ecology.
STOCK A population of fish spawning in a particular stream during a particular season. They generally do not interbreed with fish spawning in a different stream or at a different time.
STORAGE RESERVOIRSReservoirs that have space for retaining water from springtime snowmelts. Retained water is released as necessary for multiple uses -- power production, fish passage, irrigation, and navigation.
STRANDED COSTSThe cost of generating facilities or other obligations that may not be competitive in today's market. For example, let's say a utility built a power plant specifically to serve a large factory. With deregulation, if the people running that factory decide to buy cheaper power somewhere else, the utility's power plant would become a stranded cost. In other words, the higher cost of that power plant will have to be collected from somebody else.
STRATIFICATION Thermal layering of water in lakes and streams
STREAMFLOW The rate at which water passes a given point in a stream, usually expressed in cubic feet per second (cfs).
SUBBASIN A set of adjoining watersheds with similar ecological conditions and tributaries that ultimately connect, flowing into the same river or lake. Subbasins contain major tributaries to the Columbia and Snake rivers.
SUBBASIN PLANNING A coordinated systemwide approach to planning in which each subbasin in the Columbia system will be evaluated for its potential to produce fish in order to contribute to the goal of the overall system. The planning will emphasize the integration of fish and wildlife habitat, fish passage, harvest management and production.
SUPERSATURATION See dissolved gas.
SUPPLEMENTATOIN The release of hatchery fry and juvenile fish in the natural environment to quickly increase or establish naturally spawning fish populations.
SURPLUS ENERGYEnergy generated that is beyond the immediate needs of the producing system. This energy may be sold on an interruptible basis or as firm power.
TARGET POPULATION A species or population singled out for attention because of its harvest significance or cultural value, or because it represents a significant group of ecological functions in a particular habitat type.
TAILRACE The canal or channel that carries water away from the dam.
TERMINAL FISHERY A fishery designed to increase harvest of abundant fish stocks and minimize effects on depleted stocks by focusing the fishery on locations where the abundant stocks are produced ? in net pens, for example ? and where the fish also return to spawn.
THERMAL POWER PLANTA facility that uses heat to power an electric generator. The heat may be supplied by burning coal, oil, natural gas, biomass or other fuel, by nuclear fission, or by solar or geothermal sources.
TRANSBOUNDARY Refers to U.S. and Canadian border..
TRANSPORTATION Collecting migrating juvenile fish and transporting them around the dams using barges or trucks.
TRANSMISSION GRID An interconnected system of electric transmission lines and associated equipment for the transfer of electric energy in bulk between points of supply and points of demand.
TRANSMISSION SYSTEMThe system of power lines used to transport electricity over long distances. In the Pacific Northwest, BPA operates a majority of the high-voltage power lines that carry electricity between points of supply and points of demand. The main BPA lines crossing the Cascades carry power at 500,000 volts. The transmission lines that move power from BPA's delivery point to PUD substations carry power at 115,000 volts.
TRIBES Tribes in the NW that the Power Planning Council interacts with include: the Burns-Paiute Tribe; the Coeur d?Alene Tribes; the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation; the Confederated Salish-Kootenai Tribes of the Flathead Reservation; the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation of Oregon; the Confederated Tribes of the Warm Springs Reservation of Oregon; the Confederated Tribes and Bands of the Yakama Nation; the Kalispel Tribe of Indians; the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho; the Nez Perce Tribe of Idaho; the Shoshone-Paiutes of the Duck Valley Reservation; the Shoshone-Bannock Tribes of the Fort Hall Reservation; and the Spokane Tribe of Indians.
TRIBUTARY A stream that flows into another stream, river, or lake.
TURBIDITY "The term ""turbid"" is applied to waters containing suspended matter that interferes with the passage of light through the water or in which visual depth is restricted."
TURBINE Machinery that converts kinetic energy of a moving fluid, such as falling water, to mechanical or electrical power.
VOLTThe unit of measurement of electromotive force. It is equivalent to the force required to produce a current of one ampere through a resistance of one ohm.
WATERFALL A sudden, nearly vertical drop in a stream, as it flows over rock.
WATERSHED The area that drains into a stream or river. A subbasin is typically composed of several watersheds.
WATT A measure of the rate at which energy is produced, exchanged, or consumed.
WASHINGTON PUD ASSOCIATIONAn organization that represents the interests of the Public Utility Districts in the state.
WATER BUDGET A part of the Northwest Power Planning Council's Fish and Wildlife Program calling for a volume of water to be reserved and released during the spring, if needed, to assist in the downstream migration of juvenile salmon and steelhead.
WATER QUALITY A term used to describe the chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water, usually in respect to its suitability for a particular purpose.
WATER RIGHTSPriority claims to water. In western States, water rights are based on the principle "first in time, first in right," meaning older claims take precedence over newer ones.
WATT An electric unit of power or a rate of doing work (see kilowatt and megawatt).
WEAK STOCK A stock of fish where the long-term survival of the stock is in doubt. Typically this is a stock where the population is small and is barely reproducing itself or is not reproducing itself. While ESA-listed stocks are considered weak stocks, the term also includes other populations that would not yet qualify for ESA listing.
WETLANDS Lands including swamps, marshes, bogs, and similar areas such as wet meadows, river overflows, mudflats, and natural ponds.
WHEELINGWhen a company transmits electricity over the power lines owned by another company. The owner of the power line usually collects a Wheeling Charge from the users.
WESTERN SYSTEMS COORDINATING COUNCIL (WSCC)An organization that deals with issues related to power transmission interties between power systems in the western United States.
WILD POPULATIONS Fish that have maintained successful natural reproduction with little or no supplementation from hatcheries.
WOODY DEBRIS (LARGE) Pieces of wood larger than 10 feet long and 6 inches in diameter, in a stream channel.
ZOOPLANKTON Small aquatic animals that are suspended or swimming in water.
Sources:
1) Snohomish County P.U.D.:
2) The Columbia River System: The Inside Story A 1991 publication from the U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and Bonneville Power Administration
3) Public Power Fundamentals, a 1995 publication from the Public Power Council
4) Northwest Power Planning Council 2001 Columbia Basin Fish and Wildlife Program Description
5) StreamNet.org, 2001 Glossary of Terms
6) Bureau of Reclamation, Glossary of Hydropower Terms