Protection, mitigation and enhancement strategies are defined in Figure A. Collectively, these strategies are often referred to as PM&E’s.
What this section describes are PM&E strategies commonly used and discussed by Northwest hydropower operators. As shown by the Figure B (pdf) matrix, each strategy is designed to address one or more social and environmental issues.
For instance, surface collectors represent a strategy to positively affect fish migration and fish population issues. To reinforce this connection, subheadings in this article refer to both the strategy being employed and the issue(s) it addresses.
Further, when considering the description of issues and the strategies used to minimize them, it is important to remember that circumstances vary from project to project. Some projects, for instance, have only a couple of issues present. At other projects, the degree to which an issue is present can differ greatly.
For more detailed information about the environmental issues identified, read the article How A Hydroelectric Project Can Affect A River.